Important Events in Indian History

Dr.Santosh Kumar Sain
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The history of India can be traced back to about 65,000 years ago with the arrival of Homo sapiens from Africa, South India, and Balochistan who settled and urbanized the Indus Valley, giving rise to the Indus Valley Civilization. Over time, the mystical culture of the Indus Valley spread to the peasant communities in the southern regions of India. Indian history chronicles the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age in great detail.

 

Important Events in Indian History


Indian History

 

In this blog, we will provide a comprehensive account of Indian history, including important events that shaped the country.

Indian History can be broadly categorized into three parts:

  • Ancient India
  • Medieval India
  • Modern India


These three periods are characterized by different socio-cultural, economic, and political aspects that shaped the course of Indian history. Each era has its unique features and significant events that have left a lasting impact on the country.

Ancient India


Ancient India refers to the period from the Stone Age up to the Islamic invasions. It encompasses a vast timeline that witnessed the rise and fall of numerous kingdoms, Rulers, and dynasties. On the other hand, Medieval India begins in India after the Islamic invasion, which brought significant changes to the socio-cultural fabric of the country.

Events in Ancient Indian History


The history of Ancient India is replete with numerous significant events that have shaped the course of Indian civilization. Some of these events are:

Prehistoric Period: 400000 BC-1000 BC - This era witnessed the discovery of fire and the wheel, which proved to be significant technological advancements for humankind.

Indus Valley Civilization: 2500 BC-1500 BC - The Indus Valley Civilization was the first systematically settled civilization in the Indian subcontinent. It marked the beginning of urbanization in the region.

Epic Age: 1000 BC-600 BC - The compilation of Vedas and the distinction between different varnas like Arya and Dasa took place during this era.

Hinduism and Change: 600 BCE–322 BCE - This period saw the emergence of the caste system, which reached its peak during this time. It led to conservatism in society and the birth of Mahavira and Buddha, who challenged the status quo. The era also witnessed the formation of Mahajanapadas and the rise of rulers like Bimbisara, Ajata Shatru, Shisunanga, and the Nanda dynasty.

The Mauryan Era: 322 BC-185 BC

During the Mauryan Empire, established by Chandragupta Maurya, the entirety of North India came under its rule, which was further expanded by Bindusara. One of the significant events during this period was the Kalinga War, which resulted in King Ashoka's conversion to Buddhism.

Invasions and Foreign Rule: 185 BC-320 AD 

The period between 185 BC and 320 AD saw invasions by the Bactrian, Parthian, Shaka, and Kushan dynasties. This period also witnessed the opening up of Central Asia for trade, the introduction of gold coins, and the beginning of the Saka era.

Deccan and the South: 65 BC-250 AD

The Deccan and South India were dominated by the Chola, Chera, and Pandya dynasties during this period. The consolidation of their power led to the construction of the Ajanta Ellora caves, and the emergence of Sangam literature and Christianity in India.

The Gupta Era: 320 AD – 520 AD

Chandragupta I established the Gupta Empire, which marked the beginning of the classical age in North India. Samudragupta expanded the dynasty, Chandragupta II fought against the Shakas, and notable works like Shakuntalam and Kamasutra were composed. Aryabhata made significant contributions to astronomy, and the Bhakti movement emerged during this period.

The Emergence of Small Kingdoms: 500 AD-606 AD

The arrival of Hunas in North India led to migration to Central Asia and Iran during this period. The war between many dynasties resulted in the formation of numerous small states in the north.

Harshvardhan Era: 606 AD-647 AD

Famous Chinese traveler Hein Tsang visited India during Harshvardhan's reign. However, his kingdom was divided into many small states due to the Huna attack. The Deccan and South India became powerful during this time.

Southern Dynasties: 500 AD-750 AD

Chalukya, Pallava, and Pandya kingdoms emerged during this period, and the Parsis arrived in India.

The Chola Empire: 9th century AD-13th century AD

Vijayalas founded the Chola Empire and adopted a maritime policy. Temples became cultural and social centers during this period, and the Dravidian language flourished.

Northern Kingdoms: 750 AD-1206 AD

The Rashtrakutas, Pratiharas, and Palas ruled over their respective regions during this period, and the Rajputs were rising in central India. The Turkish invasion of India marked the beginning of the medieval era.


The Indus Valley Civilization: Origins and Key Facts


The Indus Valley Civilization marks the dawn of Indian history and is believed to have given rise to the Harappan civilization. It emerged around 2500 BC in the western region of South Asia, which today spans across Pakistan and western India. Below are some important facts about the Indus Valley Civilization:

The civilization is also referred to as the Harappan civilization.
It encompassed four major regions: the Indus Valley, Mesopotamia, India, and China.
Prior to 1920, little was known about the Indus Valley Civilization.

The Indus Valley Civilization: Rediscovering Two Ancient Cities


The Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan civilization, was rediscovered by the Archaeological Department of India during excavations of the valley. Two cities, Mohenjodaro and Harappa, were uncovered and revealed a wealth of information about this ancient civilization. Among the artifacts found were household items, weapons of war, gold and silver jewelry, seals, toys, and utensils.

It became evident that this region was home to a highly advanced civilization around 5000 years ago. The Indus Valley Civilization was primarily urban, with people living in well-planned and well-built towns. The civilization was also a center of trade.

The ruins of Harappa and Mohenjodaro provide evidence of the advanced weaponry and scientifically designed grand trading cities that existed during this time. The Indus Valley Civilization had a strong focus on maintaining and preserving their possessions, as evidenced by the well-preserved artifacts found during the excavations.

The Indus Valley Civilization: Infrastructure, Lifestyle, and Decline


The Indus Valley Civilization was renowned for its advanced infrastructure, including wide roads and well-developed drainage systems. The houses within the civilization were made of bricks and were often two or more floors. The people of the Harappan civilization were also skilled in growing cereals such as wheat and barley, which formed a significant part of their diet, along with meat, pig, eggs, vegetables, and fruits. They also wore clothing made of wool and cotton.

Despite its advancements, the Harappan civilization eventually declined and came to an end around 1500 BC. It is believed that the decline was caused by natural calamities and invasions from other groups. Today, the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilization serve as a testament to the achievements of this once-great civilization.

Vedic history and its main features


Vedic history refers to the period of Indian history that is characterized by the composition of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism. The Vedas were written in Sanskrit and contained hymns, rituals, and philosophical ideas that formed the basis of Hinduism. The Vedic period is generally considered to have lasted from around 1500 BCE to 500 BCE, although the exact dates are still debated among scholars.

One of the main features of Vedic history is the prominence of the caste system. The caste system divided society into four main classes: the Brahmins (priests), Kshatriyas (warriors), Vaishyas (merchants), and Shudras (laborers). Each caste had its own duties and responsibilities, and individuals were born into a particular caste and remained in that caste for life. The caste system was reinforced by religious beliefs, with the Brahmins at the top of the social hierarchy due to their role as intermediaries between humans and the gods.

Another notable feature of Vedic history is the importance of sacrifice and ritual. The Vedas contain detailed descriptions of various sacrifices that were performed to appease the gods and ensure prosperity and success. These sacrifices involved the use of fire, offering of food, and recitation of hymns. The Brahmins played a central role in performing these rituals, and their expertise in the Vedas was highly valued.

The Vedic period also saw the development of important philosophical and spiritual ideas. The Upanishads, which are a collection of philosophical texts, were written during this period and contain ideas about the nature of reality, the self, and the ultimate goal of human existence. One of the key concepts in the Upanishads is the idea of Brahman, which refers to the ultimate reality that underlies all of existence. The Upanishads also introduced the idea of reincarnation and the law of karma, which states that the actions of an individual in one life will affect their future life.

The Vedic period also saw the emergence of various religious practices and traditions that are still influential today. The practice of yoga, which involves physical postures, breath control, and meditation, was developed during this period as a way to achieve spiritual and physical well-being. The concept of dharma, which refers to one's duty or moral obligations, also emerged during this period and remains a central concept in Hinduism.

In conclusion, Vedic history is a significant period in Indian history that saw the composition of the Vedas and the emergence of important philosophical and spiritual ideas. The caste system, the importance of sacrifice and ritual, and the development of yoga and dharma are some of the main features of this period. Despite its ancient origins, many of these ideas and practices continue to have a profound impact on Indian culture and society today.

Important Points


Vedic history refers to the period of Indian history characterized by the composition of the Vedas, the earliest sacred texts of Hinduism.
The Vedic period is generally considered to have lasted from around 1500 BCE to 500 BCE.
 

The caste system was a prominent feature of Vedic history, with society divided into four main classes: Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras.
 

Sacrifice and ritual were also important features of Vedic history, with detailed descriptions of various sacrifices performed to appease the gods and ensure prosperity.
 

The Upanishads, a collection of philosophical texts, were written during this period and contain ideas about the nature of reality, the self, and the ultimate goal of human existence.
 

The concept of Brahman, reincarnation, and karma were also introduced during this period.
 

The practice of yoga and the concept of dharma also emerged during the Vedic period.
 

Many of these ideas and practices continue to have a profound impact on Indian culture and society today.

Buddhism


Buddhism, also known as Buddha Dharma or the teachings of the Buddha, is a religion and philosophy that originated in ancient India. Its founder, Lord Buddha, was born as Prince Siddhartha Gautama to King Suddhodana and Queen Mahamaya Devi in Lumbini, Nepal in 563 BC. Buddha's wife was named Yashodhara and his son was named Rahul.

According to Buddhist tradition, Prince Siddhartha left his royal life in search of spiritual enlightenment and eventually found it after six years of rigorous ascetic practices. He attained enlightenment under a Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India in 528 BC, on the full moon day of Vaishakh. Buddha then spent the rest of his life teaching the path to enlightenment and liberation from suffering to his disciples, until he attained Nirvana (death) in Kushinagar, India at the age of 80 in 483 BC.

One significant event in Buddha's teaching career was his first sermon at Mrigadav (present-day Sarnath) near Kashi on the full moon day of Ashadha, which is believed to have occurred in the same year as his enlightenment. In this sermon, Buddha emphasized the Four Noble Truths, which identify the causes of suffering, and the Eightfold Path, a middle way to overcome it. He also preached non-violence and condemned rituals such as Yajna and animal sacrifice. These teachings formed the basis of Buddhism and have been followed by millions of people around the world.

The Maurya Empire


The Maurya Empire, established by Chandragupta Maurya in 322 BCE, was a powerful Iron Age historical state in South Asia that was based in Magadha. Through the conquest of the Indo-Gangetic plain, the Mauryan Empire became centralized, with its capital located in Pataliputra, which is now known as Patna. However, the empire's extent beyond its central hub was dependent on the loyalty of military commanders who controlled armed cities.

Under the rule of Ashoka from 268–232 BCE, the empire gained brief control over the major urban centers and arteries of the Indian subcontinent, with the exception of the deep south. However, the Mauryan Empire's decline began after approximately 50 years of Ashoka's reign and eventually came to an end in 185 BCE with the assassination of Brihadratha by Pushyamitra Shunga and the establishment of the Shunga dynasty in Magadha.

 

The Gupta Empire


The Gupta Empire was ruled by two significant kings, namely Samudragupta and Chandragupta II. Under the Gupta dynasty, the people were able to unite and revive the use of Sanskrit. The Gupta dynasty was established by Chandragupta I in 320 AD, and it continued to govern until around 510 AD. During the reign of the Gupta dynasty, all of the kings, except for Narasimhagupta Baladitya, were part of the Gupta family. Baladitya, who had adopted Buddhism, initially ruled only over Magadha but later expanded his rule to include the whole of North India.

The emperors who ruled under the Gupta dynasty were Srigupta, Ghatotkacha, Chandragupta I, Samudragupta, Ramagupta, Chandragupta II, Kumaragupta I (also known as Mahendraditya), and Skandagupta, respectively. Despite this, there was no powerful central government in the country that could establish a unified governance system by conquering different small and large states.

This period was characterized by the maximum opportunity for improvement, which made it possible for great generals to fulfill their ambitions. Consequently, many remarkable generals in the Gupta dynasty of Magadha met their downfall.


The Medieval period


The Medieval period in India is marked by the Islamic invasion of the country. In 1526, Timur, the ruler of present-day Uzbekistan, and Babur, a descendant of Genghis Khan, invaded India and established the Mughal Empire, which encompassed present-day Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh. Babur's arrival in India marked the beginning of the Mughal dynasty's rule in the country, which lasted until 1600.

The decline of the Mughal dynasty began in the 1700s, with the spread of British power. The dynasty ultimately came to an end during India's first war of independence in 1857.

Here are the key events that took place in Medieval India:


Early Medieval Period (8th to 11th century): After the fall of the Gupta Empire and the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, India was divided into many small kingdoms during this period.

Late Medieval Period (12th to 18th century): During this period, Muslim invasions in the West gained momentum. The Delhi Sultanate saw the rise of several dynasties, including the Slave Dynasty, Khilji Dynasty, Tughlaq Dynasty, Sayyid Dynasty, and Lodi Dynasty.

Rise of the Vijayanagara Empire: The Vijayanagara Empire was founded by two brothers named Harihara and Bukka. It was the only Hindu state of that time that was attacked by Allauddin Khilji. After the attack, Harihar and Bukka adopted the Muslim religion.

Mughal Dynasty: The Delhi Sultanate came to an end with the beginning of the Mughal Dynasty. The Mughal dynasty was established in India after Babur invaded India. The Mughals ruled India for several centuries, with famous emperors such as Akbar, Jahangir, and Shah Jahan. However, with the rebellion of 1857, the Mughal dynasty collapsed, and modern India began under British rule.

Anglo-Maratha War


The Anglo-Maratha War is a significant event in Indian history that marks the conflict between the British and the Marathas. It began after the death of Balaji Baji Rao, who was killed in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761. He was succeeded by his son Madhav Rao, while his brother Raghunath Rao became the next Peshwa.

The first war between the British and the Marathas took place in 1772, after the death of Madhav Rao. This phase of medieval India saw several important events that shaped the outcome of the war. Here is a summary of some of these events:

The First Anglo-Maratha War (1772-1782) was fought between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire. The British were led by Warren Hastings, while the Marathas were led by Mahadji Shinde and Narayanrao Peshwa.
 

The Treaty of Salbai was signed in 1782, which ended the war. According to the treaty, the British recognized the Maratha Empire as a dominant power in India, while the Marathas agreed to support the British in case of any external threat.
 

The Second Anglo-Maratha War (1803-1805) was fought between the British and the Marathas, led by Yashwantrao Holkar and Daulat Rao Scindia. The British were victorious in this war, and the Marathas lost much of their territory.
 

The Third Anglo-Maratha War (1817-1818) was fought between the British and the Peshwa Baji Rao II. The British were victorious again, and the Maratha Empire came to an end.

After the death of Madhavrao I, there was a power struggle within the Maratha camp. Narayanrao was on the path to becoming Peshwa, but his uncle Raghunathrao also coveted the position.
 

In 1775, the Treaty of Surat was signed with British intervention. The treaty saw Raghunathrao giving 2500 soldiers to the British in exchange for Salsette and Bassein. However, the British Calcutta Council, under Warren Hastings, rejected this treaty and signed the Treaty of Purandar in 1776 with Maratha minister Nana Fadnavis.
 

Under this new treaty, only Raghunathrao was granted a pension and the British retained Salsette. But the British establishment in Bombay disregarded the treaty and protected Raghunathrao.
 

In 1777, Nana Fadnavis went against his treaty with the Calcutta Council by granting a port on the west coast of France. This led to the British sending troops to Pune.
 

A battle took place at Vadgaon near Pune in which the Marathas, under Mahadji Shinde, emerged victorious over the British in 1779. This led to the signing of the Treaty of Wadgaon by the British.
 

The Anglo-Maratha Wars concluded with the signing of the Treaty of Salbai in 1782, which marked a significant milestone in Indian history.

The Mughal Empire and the Growth of Trade in India


The Mughal Empire marked a significant turning point in the history of India, as it led to an increase in both import and export activities. Foreign merchants from countries such as the Dutch, Jews, and British began to arrive in India for business purposes.

In addition to the foreign traders, there were numerous Indian trading groups spread throughout the region. These included long-distance traders such as the Seths and the Bohras, as well as Baniks - local merchants, and Banjaras - a class of merchants who transported goods on the backs of oxen over long distances. Another group specialized in the transportation of bulk goods.

Various communities of traders were also present, such as Hindus, Jains, and Muslims in Gujarat, while in Rajasthan, the Oswals, Maheshwaris, and Agarwals came to be known as Marwaris.

In South India, the Coromandel, Chetis, and Muslim Malabar traders were some of the most important trading societies. The coastal region of Bengal was known for exporting sugar, rice, delicate muslin, and silk.

Gujarat, famous for its fine cloth and silk, served as an entry point for foreign goods. India's main imports included metals, such as copper and tin, while luxury items such as warhorses, ivory, gold, and silver were also traded. Overall, the Mughal Empire played a vital role in the growth of trade and commerce in India during its reign.

Overview of Art and Architecture During the Mughal Empire


The Mughal Empire left a lasting legacy in India with the construction of numerous historical monuments. Here is a summary of the popular art and architectural styles that emerged during this period:

Under the Mughal Empire, numerous historical monuments and architectural marvels were built, which have become an integral part of India's rich history. The Mughals had a special affinity towards creating lush gardens adorned with flowing water. Some of the famous Mughal gardens include Nishat Bagh in Kashmir, Shalimar Bagh in Lahore, and Pinjore Bagh in Punjab. During the reign of Sher Shah, several significant structures were erected, including the mausoleum at Sasaram in Bihar and the Purana Qila near Delhi.

Akbar, one of the greatest Mughal emperors, is credited with initiating the construction of many grand structures. He commissioned the construction of several forts, including the Agra Fort, which was crafted from red sandstone, and his other strongholds in Lahore and Allahabad. The Red Fort in Delhi is another famous Mughal-era fortification, which was built by Shah Jahan. This grand structure features various buildings such as Rang Mahal, Diwan-i-Aam, and Diwan-i-Khwaswas.

Another spectacular palace cum fort complex built by Akbar is the City of Victory or Fatehpur Sikri, which houses several striking Gujarati and Bengali-style buildings. It is believed that buildings were also built in the Gujarati style for their Rajput mothers. The Jama Masjid and its gateway, the Buland Darwaza or the Lofty Gate, are the most magnificent structures of the complex. The gate stands tall at 176 feet and was constructed to commemorate Akbar's victory over Gujarat. Other notable buildings in Fatehpur Sikri include Jodhabai's palace and the five-storied Panch Mahal.

Humayun's Tomb, a UNESCO World Heritage site, was built in Delhi during the reign of Akbar and features an enormous marble dome. Akbar's tomb, located at Sikandra near Agra, was built by Jahangir. Itimad Daula's tomb in Agra is another architectural masterpiece, built by Nur Jahan. Overall, the Mughal Empire left an indelible mark on Indian art and architecture, which is cherished to this day.

Shah Jahan's reign saw the popularization of a building method that used white marble with floral designs made of semi-precious stones - this was the method used to construct the Taj Mahal, considered one of the seven wonders of history. The pietra dura process was extensively used in the construction of this architectural marvel, which encompasses all forms created by the Mughals. The Taj Mahal's main attraction is its elaborate dome and four slender minarets, which have been minimally decorated.

The region/history of Awadh


The region of Awadh, located in present-day Uttar Pradesh in northern India, has a rich and diverse history. It derives its name from the Ayodhya kingdom, the capital of Kosala, and was incorporated into the Mughal Empire in the 16th century.

During the 18th century, Awadh became an independent province and was ruled by the Persian Shia governor Saadat Khan, who played a significant role in overthrowing the Sayyid brothers. In 1739, Saadat Khan was tasked by the Mughal emperor Muhammad Shah to negotiate with Nadir Shah, who had invaded India and demanded a large sum of money. When the promised funds were not delivered, Nadir Shah ordered a massacre, and Saadat Khan, ashamed of his inability to protect his people, committed suicide.

Following Saadat Khan's death, Safdar Jung, also known as the Wazir of the Mughal Empire, became the Nawab of Awadh. He was succeeded by his uncle Shujauddaulah, who organized a strong army that included both Muslims and Hindus, as well as Nagas and sanyasis. The Awadh ruler's authority extended up to Rohilkhand, an area to the east of Delhi that was home to a large number of Afghans known as Rohills.

In 1800, the British annexed Awadh as part of their empire, bringing an end to its era of independent rule. However, the legacy of Awadh's rich cultural and historical heritage lives on, and it continues to be an important part of India's diverse cultural landscape.

The Nawabs of Awadh


The Awadh Nawabs were a series of rulers who established and governed the autonomous state of Awadh. Sa'adat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk founded Awadh in 1722 AD and played a significant role in imperial affairs until he committed suicide. Safdar Jang, his son-in-law, succeeded him and took part in the Battle of Manpur against Ahmad Shah Abdali. Shuja-ud-Daula, the son of Safdarjung, was an ally of Ahmad Shah Abdali and defeated the Rohillas with British help. Asaf-ud-Daula, known for promoting Lucknow's culture, built important monuments and concluded the Treaty of Faizabad with the British. Wajid Ali Shah, the last king of Awadh, was deposed by the British Lord Dalhousie, despite being known for his love for classical music and dance styles.

The Awadh Nawabs were a series of rulers who governed the autonomous state of Awadh.

Sa'adat Khan Burhan-ul-Mulk established Awadh in 1722 AD and played an important role in imperial affairs until he committed suicide.

Safdar Jang, Sa'adat Khan's son-in-law, succeeded him and participated in the Battle of Manpur against Ahmad Shah Abdali.

Shuja-ud-Daula, the son of Safdarjung, allied with Ahmad Shah Abdali and defeated the Rohillas with British help.

Asaf-ud-Daula was known for promoting Lucknow's culture and built important monuments such as the Imambara and Rumi Darwaza. He concluded the Treaty of Faizabad with the British.

Wajid Ali Shah was the last king of Awadh, also known as Jan-e-Alam and Akhtar Piya, who loved classical music and dance styles. However, he was deposed by the British Lord Dalhousie due to a misunderstanding.

Modern India: Events from the Decline of the Mughal Empire to Independence


Modern India refers to the period from the decline of the Mughal Empire to India's independence from British rule and beyond. This era witnessed significant social, cultural, and political changes in India.

The beginning of the 20th century marked the start of India's struggle for independence from the British Empire. This period was characterized by various movements, protests, and revolutions that aimed to achieve freedom for India.

Here are some of the significant events that took place in modern India:

Rise of Regional Kingdoms and European Power: During this period, various small kingdoms like Punjab, Mysore, Awadh, Hyderabad, and Bengal expanded. European powers such as the Portuguese, Dutch, French, and English established their colonies in India.

British Supremacy and Acts: The Battle of Buxar, Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse, Regulating Act of 1773, Pitt's India Act of 1784, Charter Act of 1793, Charter Act of 1813, Charter Act of 1833, Charter Act of 1853, Government of India Act of 1858, Act of 1861, Act of 1892, Indian Council Act of 1909, Government of India Act of 1935, and Montagu-Chelmsford reforms, also known as the Government of India Act of 1919, were significant acts during the British rule.

18th Century Revolts and Reforms: This period saw the emergence of social reformers like Ramakrishna, Vivekananda, Ishwar Chand Vidyasagar, Deoghar, Young Bengal, Ram Mohan Roy, and Brahmo Samaj.

Indian National Movement: Various movements aimed at achieving India's independence from British rule emerged during this period, such as the development of education, development of the Indian press, Indian National Congress, Jallianwala Bagh massacre, the establishment of the Muslim League, Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha, Swadeshi Movement, Anarchic and Revolutionary Crimes Act of 1919, Khilafat and Non-Cooperation Movement, Simon Commission, Nehru Report, Quit India Movement, Cabinet Mission Plan, Interim Government, Constituent Assembly, Mountbatten Plan and Partition of India, Reforms in South India, Western India Reform Movement, Syed Ahmed Khan and Aligarh Movement, and Muslim Reform Movement.

Overall, modern India witnessed significant events that shaped the country's history and set the stage for the India we know today.

Types of History in Indian History


  • Political history
  • Social history
  • Cultural history
  • Religious history
  • Economic history
  • Constitutional history
  • Diplomatic History
  • Colonial history
  • Parliamentary history
  • Military history
  • History of the world
  • Regional history


List of some famous Indian History Books

  •  Indian Culture and Modern Life by Shiv Prakash Singh
  • India After Gandhi by Ramachandra Guha
  •  Hindutva by Vinayak Damodar Savarkar
  • The Inside Story of Emergency by Kuldeep Nayyar
  • Ancient History of India by Ram Sharan Sharma
  • Indian Art and Culture by Nitin Singhania
  • Constitution of India by Dr B R Ambedkar
  • The Last Mughal (2006) by William Dalrymple
  • Days of Longing (1972) by Krishna Baldev Vaid
  • Caste, Class and Power (1965) by AndrĂ© Betelle


FAQs on Indian History


Q: How old is the civilization of India?
A: The civilization of India is believed to be about 8,000 years old.

Q: Why was Bharatvarsha named Bharat?

A: It is believed that the name Bharat was named after the son of Rishabhdev, Bharata.

Q: How many periods are there in history?

A: Four.

Q: Into how many periods has history been divided?
A: Three. Ancient times, Medieval period, and Modern period.

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